Essays in Science, A Christians Perspective of the Universe
These essays are aptly illustrated in power point slides available upon request and free of charge to pastors, missionaries and evangelists for presentations in their ministries. A preview of these illustrations can be viewed at www.GSBaptistChurch.com/science and a download of the Open Office presentation can be obtained by saving to your disk www.GSBaptistChurch.com/science/sci_cosmos.odp (For those still shackled to Microsoft's Power Point please check out the Open Office Suite available for free download at www.openoffice.org, or as a last resort substitute the extension ppt in the above link, also available with a pdf extension.) God bless you as you propagate His Gospel and His truth.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Essays in Science
The Psalmist reports that “The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge. There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.” In this declaration of the heavens and the firmament we must not be found timid. The vast universe before us declares our God and creator. That vastness confounds the atheistic evolutionist and a Christian should not stumble on it's marvelous declaration.
A galaxy is a large cluster of stars. Large, here, comes in two flavors because the clusters number 100 billion or so stars, and the size is typically 100,000 light-years in diameter. A galaxy is a large cluster of a large number of stars. The term 'vast' reaches even larger potential when we realize that there are 100 billion galaxies within the viewing range of our modern telescopes. If you take a moment to count to 100 billion you will find that 'vast' is indeed overpowering. Just a hundred billion seconds ago Sampson was slaying a thousand Philistines with the jaw bone of an ass1. Stack a hundred billion dollar bills in a hole and your bottom dollar would be in China2, and our government does that once a day! Such overwhelming vastness does not change the report of the Psalmist. “The heavens declare the glory of God;”
Andromeda, a relatively close neighboring galaxy is reported to be 2 million light years away, i.e. Light leaving a star there and traveling at the speed we currently reckon light to travel (without Einstein's theories of relativity in play) would be seen here on earth 2 million years later. Light's not slow, the distance is quite vast. My eyes have seen Andromeda3 in our northern hemisphere. I marvel that I can stand on a planet in God's 6,000 year old creation and see light which is supposed to have traveled for 2 million light years through His vast universe. Don't be timid or intimidated with this declaration of the glory of God. Be emboldened.
In my years as a Bible believing born again Christian I have seen many reactions to this intimidating vastness. I enjoy the atheistic evolutionist's reaction, because there is no speech nor language wherein God's glory cannot be seen. Their answers to where this vast universe came from is thus logically entertaining to me. A big bang from nothing to an ever expanding something is indeed an entertaining theory, but not exactly intellectual. I would sooner believe that Jehovah God spoke the universe into existence than to believe in a god called Big Bang. Uni-Verse, means single spoken word. Indeed a Christian's theory that God spoke and in 6 days it all appeared is now more scientific than any thing that Darwinian Evolutionists can come up with. Christians should never shirk from what God said happened. He was the one there, and Jesus the Christ confirmed to us all that He has said about a 6 day creation.
Now let's marvel a little bit about this vastness. Some Christians have first tried to deny it's existence. They contend that the speed of light is not really known to be 300,000 kilometers per second or that the distance to Supernova 1987a, which occurred in one of the Magellanic Clouds, could not really be 160,000 light-years away from us. Denial is an ugly defense, so I shall in this treatise show how we can safely trust this observed data, and understand it more fully with Holy Scriptures coupled with Albert Einstein's marvelous theory of relativity.
Essays in Science
It was first supposed that light has a measurable speed. This cannot be seen nor measured by clicking a light switch on, because the speed of light is imperceptibly fast. Today, the speed of light is very accurately measurable. Ole Romer, a Danish astronomer was studying the periodic cycle of one of Jupiter's moons. In 1610 Galileo, armed with a 20 power telescope, noticed that Jupiter had 4 moons. Sixty five years later Ole Romer was calculating the times when one large moon emerged from Jupiter's shadow. His measurements showed a 40.5 hour period for this moon. As winter set in Ole noticed that the period of Jupiter's moon gradually increased by 20 minutes. As spring came the period gradually decreased back to 40.5 minutes. The orbit of Jupiter's moon did not change because the Earth moved further away, it was the speed of light taking the extra time to reach us from Jupiter. Ole concluded that this time difference was due to extra distance that the light had to travel to reach Earth. With this information Ole Romer, in 1676, remarkably calculated the speed of light at 225,000 kilometers per second. He was only 25% low in his calculations, and was the first person to demonstrate that the speed of light is measurable. With more accurate instruments and many more observations we calculate the speed of light in free space, in our galaxy, without the effect of black holes or errors of Cartesian velocities, at 299, 792 kilometers per second. The speed of light is thus finite and measurable.
Notice in this treatise I am emphasizing that the speed of light is measurable in this galaxy and with our current units of time and distance. The genius of Albert Einstein has allowed us to recognize that the speed of light and the time clock that measures it, are not necessarily constants but very flexible and even relative, effected by gravitational forces in space and time. Most of us heard some of this theory of relativity in the sci-fy stories about intergalactic travel where a person does not age when approaching the speed of light. Einstein's theories of relativity can alter time and distance, the speed of light and even the speed of gravity, which is not yet measured. Theories about intergalactic travel of light, time dilation or relativity can readily support an idea that out there on the edge of our universe a single day could be as a thousand years, and here in our 'time zone' a thousand years could be as a single day out there. Marvelous possibilities exist for a mere 6000 year old earth, even with the speed of light 'fixed' at 300,000 kilometers per second and Supernova 87a measured at 160,000 light years away. How did they measure that distance? That's the subject of another essay.
Essays in Science
“It is the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honour of kings is to search out a matter “ (Prov 25:2) Let's do just that concerning how far away Andromeda or Supernova 87a might actually be. Since it seems immutable that light travels at a finite, albeit very very fast speed, and we view the Andromeda galaxy from a young Earth4, perhaps the scientists have exaggerated the distances in inter-galactic space. How can you tell how far away a star is anyway?
One distance measure for space can be likened to a 25' merry go round ride. Board the merry go round at night while three candles are placed 50, 500 and 5,000 feet away. As you rotate through revolutions watching the nearest light you will have to pivot your line of sight back and forth 27 degrees (tan-1 (25/50) degrees); the second light 3 degrees (tan-1 (25/500) degrees); and the farthest light 0.3 degrees (tan-1 (25/5000) degrees). With some precise instruments you could measure these angles and then determine the distance to each flickering candle. Indeed your brain does this every day, your two eyes are spaced 3 inches apart and their vision crosses at a measured angle which determines the distance you are focused at. Now consider that from June to December or March to September the merry go round that the earth is on moves quite a distance in space. By definition we are 1 a.u. (astronomical unit) from the sun, that is 8.317 light minutes or 0.00001581 light-years. (1.581e-05 light-years) In 1987 we watched a supernova that was supposedly 10.12 billion a.u. Away. So between Dec and June the line of sight to the supernova changed by 0.0004 mas (mili-arc-seconds) or .006 billionths of a degree (tan-1 1/10,120,000,000) degrees.) The W.M. Keck II 400 inch telescope in Hawaii can achieve an amazing 5 mas spacial resolution5. Obviously we cannot measure such far space distances with these means. The 1989 European Hipparcos space observatory measured this 'parallax' distance for 120,000 stars, but it is only effective for stars within 2 – 3 thousand light years.
Going back to our merry go round example for candles greater than 5,000 feet away we could still perceive various candle distances by the size and brightness of the flames. We do this based on what we know and observe about the nearer candles at known distances. Some candles may be larger or smaller than others and cause slight error in this means of gauging distance, but this error would be relatively small. In like manner astronomers measure a stars size, emissions, and pulsations and can come up with a reasonably accurate distance estimate for deep space stars.
Again in our illustration, if the candles were all set in motion we could judge the distance to any candle by its perceived motion, especially when it is discerned in relation to know closer candles. Lights clustered together with this perceived motion and also a rotation would be even more accurately discerned. Such is the calculation of astronomical distances to stars, clusters, and galaxies. It is indeed an art in the world of science. Each measurement leans on observations from all three methods. The art does have its source of error, but over all the error will not be orders of magnitude. The 1987 supernova observed within the large Magellanic Cloud is measured (estimated) at 160,000 light years away. Throwing in a plus or minus 10,000 light year error still leaves it a very long distance away and begs the question, “Just when did that star explode?”
Ps 18:9 He bowed (bowed, streached out, extended, spread ...) the heavens also, and came down: and darkness was under his feet.
Essays in Science
“ I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find out knowledge of witty inventions.“ (Prov 8:12)
Believing the Bible seems to have most directly clashed with science in 1917 when George Haley's 100 inch telescope revealed a billion, 100,000 light-year diameter galaxies; each galaxy containing a billion stars much like our own. When God said “I made the stars also,” and said they were “as numerous as the sands of the sea” we did not realize how literally he meant it. To trust God and believe His inspired Word now, a Christian would have to believe that this tiny little planet called Earth, was central to an unfathomably vast universe, and that God somehow spread billions of stars across this finite universe in his six day creation. A few have remained undaunted in that trust. Further, in 1945 when Edwin Hubble peered through Haley's 200 inch telescope6 and concluded that this unfathomably vast universe was still expanding, that it had no center point, and it was infinite without bounds, it was supposed that 'science' had completely shattered the Bible's creation account. 'Science', now, completely rejected a Supernatural Creator, went pursuing after a random chance as the creator, and devised a 'big bang' hypothesis as their god. It is important to note here that Bible believing Christians cannot quibble with Haley's discovery of the vastness of God's universe, but only one of Hubble's findings is based on fact; the latter two are purely conjecture open for an opposite view. Taking the opposing view, that the earth IS CENTRAL in the expanding universe, and the universe IS FINITE and bounded leaves the Bible believing Christian on very sound scientific ground. Enter Albert Einstein's theories of relativity and science's discovery of the black hole7.
Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity8 teaches us that time is effected by gravity. If gravity affects time it affects velocity. Einstein's special theory of relativity teaches us that velocities effect both time and relative space distances. Now if gravity affects velocity then it affects the velocity of light, which we supposed a constant, and therein it plays into all we know about three dimensional space and our relative coordinate systems. The gist of pursuing these relationships results in an understanding that all our 'laws' of time and space, distance and speed, become relative to our perspective. If the universe IS bounded, as the Bible creation account supposes, then time, when approaching that boundary, would be very different than it is here on earth. In fact it could be, that there, at the boundary, a thousand years is as a single day here. “For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.” (Psalm 90:4) “beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.” (2Pet 3:8) A Bible believing Christian has gotta love Einstein's theory of relativity. And an evolutionary atheist, if he is indeed a 'scientist' needs to set aside his god of 'big bang' and deal with it as well.
Einstein also convinced us that energy is mass and mass is energy. E = m c2 directly falls out of his theories of relativity. Mass, then, is a bundle of energy and nothing more. A Christian knows that things were spoken into existence by God. “Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.” (Heb 11:3) In space it has been found that this energy can be expanding or collapsing. When it collapses on itself we find what has been called a 'black hole.' Consider that a 'black hole' has such a gravitational pull that even light does not escape it's pull, thus it's name9. One can practically imagine light piercing away from this hole like a bullet shot straight up in the air. But the light and the bullet, lacking the energy to escape the huge gravitational force, slows, stops and falls back to it's source. In such a scenario the speed of light is not constant as it approaches the boundary of the black hole. Now imagine the reverse of a black hole. If the “darkness on the face of the deep” were thrown into reverse when God said “let there be light” the hole that was ever collapsing and absorbing energy would be a mass which is every emitting energy into a universe that is ever expanding. This is not the 'big bang' hypothesis, for their universe is boundless and infinite. This is God's accounting of a bounded and expanding universe. Believing God is not unscientific. Trusting his account of creation does not conflict with any evidence, in fact, in the long run it has proven more steadfast and certain than all those who purpose beforehand to reject what He says. Don't let 'science so called' confuse your trust in God's inspired Word. When it almost says as an afterthought “He made the stars also” or when it says “He bowed the heavens also, and came down: and darkness was under his feet.” (Psalm 18:9) it behooves us to believe him. There is no science that confounds God's creation accounting. Paul writes it down, “O Timothy, keep that which is committed to thy trust, avoiding profane and vain babblings, and oppositions of science falsely so called: Which some professing have erred concerning the faith.” (1Tim 6:20-21)
Essays in Science, A Christian Perspective
The Bible says that time is relative to ones perspective. “For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and as a watch in the night.” (Psalm 90:4) “beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.” (2Pet 3:8) The German born Jewish physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) nailed such a concept down with logical mathematics and bounded it with scientific theory. Albert divided his explanations of the theory of relativity into his special theory of relativity, then his general theory of relativity. His special theory can be followed logically with consideration that the speed of light is always, in all places, at all relative velocities, a constant, and this needs to be understood before going to the general theory.
Albert Einstein was not only a genius and physicist, as a professor he was skilled communicator. In his book “Relativity, The Special and the General Theory” he demonstrated the special theory of relativity with a very, very long, very, very fast train which is instantaneously hit with lightning in its engine and its caboose. A man situated on the embankment, exactly midway between these flashes would see the flashes at the same instant. But because the speed of light is always constant and not relative to any motion of the observer, the man on the train exactly midway between these flashes, and yet hurdling toward the flash at the engine, would also see the flashes at the same time. This is impossible with our principle of relativity, but it is, in fact true. Exploring this truth brings out Albert Einsteins unprecedented insight called his Special Theory of Relativity.
Lightning instantaneously flashes equidistant before and behind the speeding train.
At light speed the flashes proceeds to the observers now separating because of train vel..
Since the speed of light is constant relative to each observer, they each see only one flash.
Now it was actually the Dutch physicist Hendrick Lorentz (1853-1928) who had solved the mathematics of this dilemma when he did the same reasoning with electromagnetic waves. Albert used the Lorentz transformation10 to solve the riddle of the moving train, due to it's constant velocity, occupying a different time and space continuum than the fixed observer. What was proven was that for a system with a constant linear velocity relative to a second fixed reference system, time ticks slower and objects grow smaller proportional to this motion.
Consider what Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity implies again: For a body in motion time slows and space condenses! Thus distances get smaller and time expands to larger, thus velocities being smaller distances divided by larger times, change by another order of magnitude out their in a moving cosmos. Such a phenomena is not observable in our reference system because our fastest trains and Eddie Feianer's fastest baseball11 pitch do not begin to approach light speed. However, out their in the cosmos, velocities on the edge of our universe easily could. The clear conclusion is that all is not as it seems when gazing 160,000 light years into the universe. And this is only with Albert Einstein's Special Theory, when inertial bodies undergo accelerations as well as experience gravitational attractions where the velocity of light does change, the more universal General Theory of relativity makes everything we know about space travel and light travel through space similar to nailing jello to a wall.
Essays in Science, A Christian Perspective
The Bible says “He bowed (bowed, streached out, extended, spread ...) the heavens also, and came down: and darkness was under his feet.” (Psalm 18:9)
Essays in Science, A Christian Perspective
The Bible says “Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.” (Heb 11:3) Physicists, like Albert Einstein, mathematicians, like ones scariest college professor, and engineers, like this author, have long recognized a dimension in the universe having to do with the square root of a negative number and called the 'imaginary domain'. The mathematician says the square root of negative 1 does not exist, but if it did exist and someone multiplied it by a magnitude, say 9, and then squared it to discover an area, they would get a negative magnitude, say -3. The engineer says that all of control theory rests on balancing the poles, a place in the imaginary domain that touches infinity, and zeros, a place in the imaginary domain that touches absolute nothingness, i.e. negative infinity. Albert Einstein says that if something were to exceed the speed of light it would pass through infinity and come up in this imaginary domain. Now if finite man treads around in this imaginary domain in order to understand and resolve things in his universe, surely one could allow an infinite God and Creator to go there to create this universe.
Venturing into this imaginary domain that is not imaginary at all, one can resolve that stars could have been spread across the cosmos at speeds approaching and exceeding the speed of light. This is scientifically impossible, says the evolutionary atheist, it would take infinite energy to exceed the speed of light. It is very interesting that when the atheist proposes a universe that is infinite and without bounds his 'big bang' creator and god must be finite with bounds. When a Christian, however, counters that the universe is indeed finite with bounds, his Creator, Jehovah God, has already revealed that He is infinite and without bounds. Both are very scientific, to the frustration of the atheist, and Christianity fits all the evidences better than any 'big bang' ever could.
Essays in Science, A Christian Perspective
The Bible says that when God created the world it was very good. It also says the lights which he put in the firmament were “for signs, and for seasons, and for days and for years.” These lights certainly consisted of the sun, the moon and the planets which mark out these seasons. The Bible then adds that “He made the stars also” which likely limits these lights which are “for signs and seasons, and for days and for years” to these bodies. When one says 'first star I see tonight' he is usually looking at a planet. Thus our sun, moon and planets were created by God as our calendar system, to mark out days, seasons, and years, and they were created 'very good'. In this treaties I contend that this well made calendar system consisted of a very organized 360 day year which the moon divided into twelve 30 day months, and that a catastrophic event altered this system into our present condition.
Bible believers will quickly recognize this catastrophic event as the world flood of Genesis chapter 6. There are many references to this judgment of God on the earth which imply changes in the heavens and the earth. In 2 Samuel 22:8 it says “Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations of heaven moved and shook, because he was wroth.” There are some movements and shaking which could easily cause the earth calendar to change to a 365 and ¼ day year with a 27 day 7 hour 43 minute lunar month. We can use these two supposed changes to our calendar to hypothesize what changes took place in our solar system in God's wrath of a world flood 4000 years ago.
Because of the laws of gravity and centrifugal force there are three ways to bring about an increase in the length of a solar year. A year being the time it takes to circle the sun in an orbit. One way would be to change the orbital mechanics. This could be done without changing any physical laws simply by moving the earth 1,436,974 km further away from the sun which would only decrease the sun's radiant energy here by less than 2%. Or, the time in one year could be increased by 5 ¼ days by a decrease in the mass of the sun, a very unlikely event not herein pursued, but possible mathematically.
Lastly this increase in a year's length could be accomplished by an increase in the rotation of the earth. A faster rotation, would make for shorter days, and it would take more of these shortened days to clock out our rotation around the sun. Thus, although such an increase would not change the time it took to circle the sun, it could easily increase the day count from 360 to 365 ¼. The right combination of these two possibilities can be made to account for the aforementioned change in the lunar orbit around the earth. We can thus balance these into a likely scenario wherein “the earth shook and trembled; the foundations of heaven moved and shook,” and the nicely ordered calendar system that God made in creation altered to the conglomerated one that we see today.
The scenario of the earth once having a 360 day year and twelve 30 day months is a justifiable hypothesis. It is more justifiable for the Bible believer who understands Noah's calendar which became the Jewish 360 day per year, 30 day per month calendar. A catastrophic change in our orbital mechanics brought about by a comet plunging into our sun is an equably justifiable hypothesis. It is more justifiable for the Bible believer who knows there was a world flood here, and that there was water damage on our moon and nearest neighboring planets; water damage that could have been caused by a passing comet. Photographs of Mars indicates that water once stood to a considerable depth there and it has what appears to be water channels produced from the resulting flood. It is interesting that the modern atheist scientists who sent expeditions to mars will believe a 'world' flood there, but to avoid lending any credence to the Bible that they hate, they vehemently deny a world flood on earth, despite the clear evidences. Our moon also has craters with no remaining asteroids. Craters likely caused by huge ice chunks that quickly dissipated leaving only the crater. And it has been presented with plausible explanation that such ice from a comet would seek out our magnetic poles for entry, that it could account for the wobble in the earths tilt, account for the instantly frozen mammoths at the poles, and account for the Biblical revelation that it rained for 40 days and 40 nights on the whole earth, easily accounting for a blanket of water that covered the whole earth in a world flood12.
Let us hypothesize then that a comet or comet tail passed by our earth and sun 4000 years ago. This is not to diminish from the revealed Word of God and suppose a naturalist solution to a super natural event, but to understand more completely what God said happened. But an atheist naturalist would even suppose such a hypothesis believable because of the earths upcoming close calls with asteroids and comets. As a comet, which is a screaming fast ball of ice with a tail of debris, comes on a hyperbolic orbit toward our sun, it passes near all 9 of our planets. If it were to just come close to the planet earth, the orbit of our moon would change because of the force of the collisions and the mass of water added to the earth. The orbit of our earth would change because of the force of the collisions and the mass added to our sun. And the rotation of the earth could increase or decrease due to rotational energy added or removed. Just adding a mass of water to the earth, however, would slow the its rotation, and thereby lengthen a day and shorten the year (i.e. bringing the water mass up to rotation would drag the earth energy to a slower rotation, this would actually lengthen a day, making fewer of them to pass in one orbit of the sun, giving a phenomena of a shortened year.) These physical changes can be combined and analyzed to determine a realistic comet collision which changed the earth from mans first observed 360 day year with twelve equally marked out lunar months, to an awkward 365 ¼ day solar calendar where the Hebrews of the Bible have to add one 30 day month 7 times in 40 years13 just to keep things lined up. Like all of life's processes, such a likely scenario is easily rational but mathematically very intense.
We know the sun has variations of it's own and “The total solar irradiance (TSI) is the amount of solar radiative energy impinging on the Earth's upper atmosphere. It is observed to vary in phase with the solar cycle, with yearly averages going from 1365.5 Watt per square meter at solar minimum, up to 1366.6 at solar maximum, with fluctuations about the means of about +/- 1 Watt per square meter on timescales of a few days (see Figure 4, yellow and red curves). The min-to-max variation, at the 0.1% level, is far too small to affect Earth's climate directly14”
For someone with a high school level of physics the following analysis is mathematically intriguing. It utilizes the simple laws of orbital mechanics to demonstrate the feasibility of a comet collision changing the solar and lunar orbits from a 360 day year and twelve 30 day months to our present conglomerate and far less ordered system.
An analysis of the change in the earth orbit that would add the 5.25 days to a 360 day year would begin with the basic equation from orbital mechanics for the period of a geocentric orbit:
t2 = 4p2 r3 /(G M)
where: t = time period of an orbit
p = 3.141592654
r = radius of the geocentric orbit
G = gravitational constant currently
M = mass of the central mass (i.e. sun)
For earth's orbit period to increase by the necessary 1.4583333% would require r to increase by 0.9698 987437% (i.e. (1.01458 t)2 = 4p2 (1.00987r)3 /(G M)
Thus the radius of the earth orbit would go from 0.9903944183835
au to our present 1 au. Note that the au is a space measure of
earth's distance from the sun, 1 au = 149,597,871,464 m. Thus the
earth would move from 148,160,896,899.998 m away from the sun to our
present 149,597,871,464 m distance. Since the radiated energy from
the sun is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, sun
energy would have decreased on earth by only 1.949% because of this
move of 1,436,974,564 m.
Although unlikely the same equation could increase the earth's orbit period by the necessary 1.4583333% with a decrease in the mass of the sun. It's mass would have to decrease by 2.85408295350576% (i.e. (1.01458 t)2 = 4p2 r3 /(G (1-0.02854 M)
Thus the mass of the sun would go from 1.931649e+030 kg to our
present 1.9884e+030 kg or decrease by 5.675057e+028 kg which is just
over 9,502 planet earths. There is no accounting for such a decrease
in the mass of the sun so the decreasing sum mass hypothesis is
Given that the period of an earth orbit is currently 365.2424 days (31,556,943.36 sec)
The equations for the mass of the sun is:
m = 4 pi2 r3 /G t2
where: pi = 3.141592654
r = radius of the earth orbit, currently 1 au = 149,597,870,691 +/- 30 meters
G = gravitational constant currently calculated to be 6.67390 E-011 N m2 /Kg 2
t = 31557600 sec = period of orbit
thus m = mass of sun, currently calculated15 = 1.9886869190E+030
Given that the period of a lunar orbit is currently 27.321582 days (2,360,584.6848 sec) A sidereal month, referenced to sun
(The synodic month, referenced to the earth is 29.530588 days (2,551,442.8032 sec))
The equations for the radius to the moon is:
r3 = G m t2 / 4 pi2
where: pi = 3.141592654
G = currently calculated to be 6.67390 E-011 N m2 /Kg 2
m = mass of earth, currently calculated16 = 5.97223 (+/- .00008) E+024 kg
t = 2,360,584.6848 sec
thus r = radius of the lunar orbit, calculated to be 383,176,222
"Am I therefore become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?"
Gal. 4:16 (http://www.chick.com/bc/2007/biglie.asp)
Issue Date: May/June 2007
When Neil Armstrong guided the lunar lander down toward the surface of the moon in 1970 he had many concerns. One of those was Cosmologist Isaac Asimov’s prediction in 1958: “I get a picture, of the first spaceship picking out a nice level place for landing purposes, coming slowly downward tail-first and sinking majestically out of sight.”
Asimov had calculated that, if the moon had been around a few billion years, it would be covered with a layer of cosmic dust several miles thick. That, of course, is why NASA first sent an unmanned lander that found, to Asimov’s surprise, only two or three inches of dust. And we are all familiar with pictures of Armstrong’s footprints in the shallow lunar dirt.
Evolutionists depend heavily on huge eons of time to allow for all the happy accidents necessary for life to evolve from the primordial soup. Yet they keep bumping into evidence that the earth is less than 10,000 years old.
Our explorations on the moon have turned up many types of evidence that the earth and its moon have not been around the billions of years that evolutionists claim. The lunar dust is only one item of lunar evidence confounding the evolutionists.
With modern methods of measurement, scientists have discovered that the moon is traveling away from the earth at the rate of one and one-half inches a year. This means that, if it had been around billions of years, it would have been so close to the earth that it would have been pulled into the earth by gravity.
The moon rocks brought back by the astronauts also betrayed the old earth theory. They contained the short-term radioactive isotopes Uranium 236 and Thorium 230 that would have turned to lead in only a few thousand years. This, alone, is very important proof that the moon cannot be older than several thousand years.
Author Vance Ferrell, in his book, The Evolution Handbook, lists several other facts about the moon that confound the theory of evolution. The fact that the moon still has significant quakes, lava flows and gas emissions indicates a young moon. Also significant is the composition of the lunar soil and the presence of inert gases on the moon’s surface.
The hard evidence continues to overload the evolutionists’ sinking ship of faith. To defend their position, they have to resort to shrill accusations that creationists are just trying to push religion. But the evidence is piling up on our side. Chick Publications has several excellent books you can use in witnessing to those suffering under evolution’s big lie (see booklist).
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188 South Main St. Naples NY 14512
This letter is longer than what is usually printed in editorials but after you printed Rev Dick Rauscher's slanderous 2 page letter (Feb 16 2005) it is fitting and fair that you print this short rebuttal. Please print the whole letter.
Pastor Edward Rice
Good Samaritan Baptist Church, 54 Main St. PO Box 99, Dresden, NY 14441
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A letter you printed entitled “Scientific evidence is clear, fear keeps conservative Christians from accepting theory of evolution” is so fraught with error that I, a fundamentalist conservative Christian under his slanderous attack, must respond to Dick Rauscher's folly. There in no 'scientific evidence' that supports a hypothesis of macro-evolution nor is there a shred of 'scientific evidence' supporting this planet's age anywhere near 3.5 billion years. Ignorance of the scientific method accounts for such ludicrous suppositions as found in this certified psychoanalysts attack on Christianity. Scientific evidence would involve the laboratory demonstration of evolution and despite years of grandiose effort, all that can be demonstrated in our laboratories is de-volution. Not a single, ever seen, mutation produced had a single beneficial attribute, none; thats why we call them mutants. There is not a single, ever seen, dog – horse cross that scientifically demonstrates their hypothesis that horses came from dogs, none. They cannot do it in the laboratory even with gene manipulations. On the contrary the research in DNA absolutely blocks their ludicrous hypothesis. There is NO scientific evidence that supports the conjecture that Charles Lyell, made in the 1830's about uniformitarianism, (i.e. all things continue as they have from the beginning, naturally with no cataclysmic events like a world flood or a supernatural intervention). There is NO scientific evidence that supports the conjecture that Charles Darwin made in 1859 when he jumped from uniformitarianism principles and supposed that all plants, fish, birds and animals have common ancestorial roots. There is NONE.
The THEORY of evolution is no more than that, and I don't reject the theory because of 'fear' I reject it because I can think, I can research, and I can find that the Biblical account of creation and of cataclysmic interventions of a supernatural God supports all the evidences seen in this world far better than the wild unproven, undemonstrated speculations of Darwinianism that now pretends, with no evidence, that it started 3.5 billion, that's 3,500,000,000, years ago. That such could possibly be true contradicts their uniformitarianistic basis of their initial conjecture! There is no science in their conjectures nor in their aging estimations. They are but wild unsubstantiated hypothesis that there is no God and no creator. NO science is involved in this hypothesis, no laboratory proving of the speculation. The “fossilized stromatolites and other fossil remains” offers clear evidence all right, but NOT evidence of an evolution of species that the Methodist Reverend purports. It is direct evidence of the mass graves of thousands, yea millions, of created beings which were drowned together in a world catastrophic flood. The innumerable metric tons of coal in the earth do not speak of millions of years of evolution but of a cataclysmic flood that uprooted millions of tons of lush vegetation that grew in a green-housed earth where things lived for hundreds of years. (i.e. explain the gigantic palm trees found frozen in the ice pack of both poles via your uniformitarian evolutionary theory!) The thousands of frozen mammoths found under the ice packs of Siberia and the Yukon, the thousands of dinosaur fossils and jungle animals found together in the mountains ranges of Antarctica do not support any theory of evolution, they absolutely confound it. But they do support a cataclysmic world flood that the evolutionists vehemently deny. Every known culture of humans has accounts of this world flood, it is not scientific to throw out all of that because it does not fit your current godless theory, in fact it is un-scientific. The immense pockets of oil in this world testify to millions of decayed animals buried in one catastrophic event, not to millions of years, that's why we call them fossil fuels! The Atlantic Ridge gives evidence of the foundation of the earth being broken up like the Bible says, not of millions of years of uniformitarianism as speculated by godless evolutionists. The Grand Canyon's formation in a few weeks of massive erosion from a huge trapped inner lake running off as the waters 'abated' after a world flood is very believable. Such has been demonstrated innumerable times when natural damns burst and erode canyons today, or when Mt. St. Helens cut canyons through bedrock in only weeks. That makes far more 'scientific' sense than the godless evolutionists idea that in millions of years of the Colorado river flowing through (up hill at first) dirt, it cut through their fictitious geological column. Today we have exposed fossilized trees that would have to grow through 300,000 of their fictitious years. That's unbelievable. That's not scientific evidence of evolution or of aging, that's balderdash. They cannot support one component of their hypothesis about the origin of life, the Miller-Urey 'scientific experiment' of 1952 was demonstrated impossible, unverifiable and fraudulent in 1960. It is still taught in our High School texts as 'scientific proof' of their hypothesis, doubtless the Methodist Rev. read it in his high school. The Darwinian cannot support one component of his hypothesis about evolution of a species of mammals coming from an amoeba that has both life and DNA, let alone from a banana, like Darwin supposed. And then to suppose that a family of rodents, slowly turned into a family of dogs, that traded paws and claws for hoofs of a horse is so much idle speculation that even an uneducated imbecile could see through it. They have no evidence at all, let alone any 'scientific evidence.'
If the age of this earth were only 2 million years and their theory of uniformitarianism were true the natural erosion of Niagara Falls would put it in Cleveland Ohio, and Lake Erie would be lush farm land. If only 2 million were true the Gulf of Mexico would be filled with Mississippi sediment and we would be bringing in potatoes not fish. All evidence demonstrates a earth that is less than 10,000 years old, unless you start with a wild hypothesis about snails slowly, slowly, slowly turning into mammals then slowly, slowly, slowly evolving into intelligent beings with Phds. The only thing that could get an estimate close to 2 million years is their fool conjecture that we evolved here, and now they are describing a “Hadean Era” of an uninhabitable earth 4.6 BILLION years ago, and a “Archaen Era” of an inhabitable earth only 3.8 BILLIOIN years ago. Those who would believe such rubbish exhibit a godless motivation and an immensely defective imagination. They describe two rocks rubbing together and magically producing organic material that turned into an amino acid and sparked life! ... DNA! That life somehow started to breath and it grew arms that slowly, slowly, slowly turned into wings. Balderdash! I don't reject that because I am a Fundamental Bible Believer, I don't reject that because it makes me afraid, I reject that because I am not an idiot, I can think logically; I reject that because I am an engineer and have studied the 3rd law of thermodynamics!
Fundamental Bible Believers are not afraid of Rev. Rauscher's ill conceived notion of evolution we just know that man has always rebelled against the authority of his creator and man will even believe the most ludicrous lies of a wildly speculated evolutionary hypothesis to pretend God didn't create the world in six days. Fundamental Bible Believers are not supremacists as the Methodist Rev. slanderously implied, we are people who believe the Bible. The Bible that he has rejected. We are people who hold to the fundamentals of the Scriptures that state that “God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son that whosoever believeth in him should not perish but have everlasting life.” A Fundamentalist Muslim holds to his fundamentals of jihad and coercion with a sword. Shame on them. But a Fundamentalist Christian holds to the fundamentals of God's love and gracious offer of forgiveness to all men through the sacrifice of His only begotten son. In the name of Christianity the Roman Church did use the sword and coercion and burn fundamental Bible believers at the stake, tis true. Protestant 'Christians' did the same but each did so rejecting the fundamental teachings of God's Holy Word. There is no need for the Methodist Rev. to again villainize and preach hate and annihilation of the Fundamental Christians that he has attacked just because they do not believe his silly notion that we evolved here from swine.
Baptist Rev. Ed Rice
(All Scripture References are from the Holy Bible, King James’ English Translation)
Get a King James version of the Bible, it is still the most accurate translation today, and was not changed by the ecumenical modernists, and complete these verses to better understand why Christians believe the written record.
In the Christian faith and in their written record an apostle is an eyewitness of, and thus the only accurate recorder of the facts surrounding the Christ. The Apostle John wrote in his record:
I John 1:1 That which was from the beginning, which we have __________, which we have ________ with our eyes, which we have____________ ________, and our hands have ______________, of the Word of life; ... 3 That which we have _________ and __________ declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his ______ __________ ____________. 4 And these things ____________ we unto you, that your joy may be full.
Judas, who betrayed the Christ, hung himself and the disciples were to choose an apostle to replace him and bring their number back to 12. Notice the requirements for a replacement apostle listed in Acts1:21-22:
Acts 1:21 Wherefore of these men which have companied with us ______ ______ ________ that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, 22 ________________ from the baptism of John, unto that ________ ______ that he was __________ ____ from us, must one be ordained to be a ________________ with us of his resurrection.
Notice WHY The Apostle John wrote: I John 1:4 And these things _ _ _ _ _ we unto you, that your _ _ _ may be full. 5 ¶ This then is the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is _ _ _ _ _, and in him is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ at all. I John 5:9 If we receive the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of men, the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of God is greater: for this is the _ _ _ _ _ _ of God which he hath _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of his Son. 10 ¶ He that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on the Son of God hath the witness in himself: he that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ God hath made him a liar; because he believeth not the _ _ _ _ _ _ that God gave of his Son. 11 And this is the _ _ _ _ _ _ , that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. 12 He that _ _ _ _ the Son _ _ _ _ life; and he that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the Son of God _ _ _ _ _ _ _ life. 13 These things have I written unto you that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on the name of the Son of God.
John 20:30 And many other _ _ _ _ _ truly did Jesus in the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of his
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, which are not _ _ _ _ _ _ in this book: 31 But these are _ _ _ _ _ _ _, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ye might have life through his name.
Humanists, Ecumenicals and Modernists try and deny the authors of Scripture so lets carefully look at the Titles of the four Gospels. Turn to the first New Testament book, which was the first one written.
What is it's title? The _ _ _ _ _ _ According to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
It was written by the Apostle Matthew. The second Gospel is titled what? The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Mark was a young preaching companion to the Apostle Peter and wrote under his apostolic authority. His name is mentioned in Acts 12:25, 15:37,39, and II Timothy 4:11, as companion of the apostles. The third Gospel is titled what? The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . Dr. Luke was the preaching companion of the Apostle Paul and wrote under his apostolic authority. Why Luke wrote is explained in his own hand. Luke 1:1 ¶ Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of those things which are most surely believed among us, 2 Even as they _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ them unto us, which from the beginning were _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and ministers of the word; 3 It seemed good to me also,.., to _ _ _ _ _ unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, 4 That thou mightest _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed.
We have already examined why the Apostle John wrote, but let's look at the title of his Gospel, the forth book in the New Testament: The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. What did Christ command John to do in Revelation 1:19 _ _ _ _ _ the things which thou hast _ _ _ _ , and the things which are, and the things which shall be hereafter;. What did John testify of his writings in Revelation 22:18 For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this _ _ _ _ , If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ that are written in this book: 19 And if any man shall take away from the _ _ _ _ _ of the _ _ _ _ of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life,..
We have a pure written record. That written record tells us who Jesus the Christ said that he was; where he came from; and why he came. John 1:1 ¶ In the beginning was
the _ _ _ _, and the _ _ _ _ was with God, and the _ _ _ _ was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ by him; and without him was not any thing _ _ _ _ that was _ _ _ _. 4 In him was life; and the life was the _ _ _ _ _ of men. ... 9 That was the true _ _ _ _ _, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world. 10 He was in the _ _ _ _ _, and the _ _ _ _ _ was made by him, and the _ _ _ _ _ knew him not. ... 14 And the _ _ _ _ was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
There are only two categories for mankind; those who will believe him and receive him, and those who will not. John 1:11 He came unto his own, and his own received him not.
12 But as many as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ on his name: 13 Which were _ _ _ _, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
A Christian believes every word of all 66 books of the Holy Bible because that is what Jesus believed and commanded. A Christian does not include apocrypha books because Jesus did not include them as Scripture. A Christian first and foremost believes what Jesus believed and taught, has received Him as his Saviour, his Lord and his God and has been born again, spiritually, into the Kingdom of God. There are a lot who claim the name without these truths, and Jesus warns us to beware of them, even to keep no company with them.
I pray that you are a Christian or will today become one.
Pastor Ed Rice
(All Scripture References are from the Holy Bible, King James’ English Translation)
The intent of this worksheet is to emphasize the importance of science (i.e. systematic and formulated pursuit of knowledge by observation and experimentation) in our pursuit of life’s cause, life’s purpose and life’s direction.
Proverbs is written by the wisest person in the world, King Solomon, under the inspiration of God. (II Tim 3:16, II Pet 1:20-21) Three thousand years ago Solomon collected and penned over 4,000 proverbs of Wisdom, Science, Biology and Botany. All that we have remaining are the 1000 Wisdom Proverbs that were included as Holy Scriptures and meticulously copied and preserved by God for our use. This is a marvelous collection of wisdom from God to man. Get your Bible out and look up these promises about pursuit of science.
In the IF-THEN scenario of Proverbs chapter 2 fill in the 8 things that are your responsibility :
Proverbs 2:1 ¶ My son, if thou wilt _ _ _ _ _ _ _ my _ _ _ _ _ , and
_ _ _ _ my _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ with thee;
2 So that thou _ _ _ _ _ _ _ thine _ _ _ unto wisdom, and
_ _ _ _ _ thine heart to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ;
3 Yea, if thou _ _ _ _ _ _ after _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ up thy voice for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
4 If thou _ _ _ _ _ _ _ her as silver, and
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for her as for hid treasures;
Those are the 8 things that God expects from us and they are followed by 2 things that will result. Look up and fill in these two IF-THEN consequences:
5 Then shalt thou _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ of the LORD, and
_ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of God
Now fill in the result’s of understanding the fear of the LORD, and finding the knowledge of God, first in regard to God’s description of the way of evil man:
Prov 2:10 ¶ When wisdom entereth into thine heart, and knowledge is pleasant unto thy soul;
11 Discretion shall _ _ _ _ _ _ _ thee, understanding shall _ _ _ _ thee:
12 To _ _ _ _ _ _ _ thee from the way of the evil man,
from the man that _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ things;
(Get an old and good dictionary and look up the important word froward what does it mean? __________________________________________________________
13 Who _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , to walk in the ways of _______________
14 Who _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to do _ _ _ _ , and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of the wicked; 15 Whose ways are _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and they _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in their paths: (Crooked is a good synonym for froward)
Now fill in the result’s of understanding the fear of the LORD, and finding the knowledge of God, in regard to God’s description of the strange woman:
16 To deliver thee from the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ woman,
even from the stranger which _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ with her _ _ _ _ _ ;
17 Which _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ of her youth, and
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of her God.
18 For her house _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ unto _ _ _ _ _ , and
her _ _ _ _ _ unto the _ _ _ _ .
19 None that go unto her return again, neither take they hold of the paths of life.
These 8 pursuits then lead to understanding the fear of the LORD, and finding the knowledge of God, can cause you to walk in the ‘good way’ of life. Lack of them cause you to walk in the ‘way of evil man’, and to pursue the ‘strange woman’, with your life, and to your death. You need them “ That thou mayest walk in the way of good men, and keep the paths of the righteous”. (Prov 2:20)
If you have this understanding of the fear of the LORD, and find the knowledge of God, look at the promise that is given in the next chapter of The Proverbs of Solomon:
Prov 3: 7 ¶ Be not wise in thine own eyes: fear the LORD, and depart from evil.
8 It shall be health to thy navel, and marrow to thy bones.
9 Honour the LORD with thy substance, and with the firstfruits of all thine increase:
10 So shall thy barns be filled with plenty, and thy presses shall burst out with new wine.
Prov 3:13 ¶ _ _ _ _ _ is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding. 14 For the merchandise of it is _ _ _ _ _ _ than the merchandise of
_ _ _ _ _ _ , and the _ _ _ _ thereof than fine _ _ _ _ .
15 She is more precious than _ _ _ _ _ _ : and all the things thou canst _ _ _ _ _ _ are not to be compared unto her. 16 _ _ _ _ _ _ of days is in her right hand; and in her left hand _ _ _ _ _ _ and _ _ _ _ _ _ . 17 Her ways are ways of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and all her paths are _ _ _ _ _ . 18 She is a tree of _ _ _ _ to them that lay hold upon her: and
_ _ _ _ _ is every one that retaineth her.
19 The LORD by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath he established the heavens. 20 By his knowledge the depths are broken up, and the clouds drop down the dew. 21 ¶ My son, let not them depart from thine eyes: keep sound wisdom and discretion: 22 So shall they be life unto thy soul, and grace to thy neck.
23 Then shalt thou _ _ _ _ in thy way _ _ _ _ _ _ , and thy foot shall not
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ . 24 When thou liest down, thou shalt _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ : yea, thou shalt lie down, and thy sleep shall be _ _ _ _ _ .
25 Be not afraid of sudden fear, neither of the desolation of the wicked, when it cometh.
26 For the LORD shall be thy confidence, and shall keep thy foot from being taken.
… 35 The _ _ _ _ shall inherit _ _ _ _ _ : but _ _ _ _ _ shall be the promotion of fools.
What are you pursuing with the mind that God has given you? Fables and foolishness? Wicked ways and the strange women? Use this wise IF-THEN pursuit strategy to find the answers to life’s three questions Where did I come from? Why am I here? And Where am I going? Science is the formalized pursuit of knowledge. God tells us where to begin this pursuit: “The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge: but fools despise wisdom and instruction.” (Prov 1:7) Fear of the LORD is the beginning of WISDOM (Prov 9:10). Will you be wise? Or Will you be foolish?
1Judges 15, 3168years * 365.25days/yr * 24hrs/day * 60min/hr * 60sec/min = 1011
2Diameter of Earth is 7,926 miles. 7,926 mi * 5280 ft/mi * 12 in/ft * 200 dollars/in = $1011
3Info with photos from http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap021021.html accessed Oct 2008
4If the Bible is true, infallible and inerrant as is our presupposition, the Earth was formed in 6 days as God said only 6000 years ago.
5 The marvelous 200 inch Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory had an amazing resolving power of 0.025 arc sec (25 mas) from 1948 to 1993. In 1993 Keck's dual 400 inch telescopes perfected a 5 mili arc second spacial resolution at 2.2 micrometers. From www.astro.caltech.edu/palomar/ and www.keckobservatory.org
6George Ellery Hale died in 1938 before peering through his 200 inch engineering wonder miraculously mounted at Palomar Observatory and utilized by his student Edwin Hubble. From www.astro.caltech.edu/palomar/history.html accessed 10/11/2008
7Astronomers now believe that quasars are a special sort of galaxies. Since they are billions of light years away, astronomers had to come up with an explanation for their incredible brightness. The best theory so far says that a quasar's energy is generated by a giant black hole at its center, up to a billion times more massive than the Sun. This black hole is voraciously sucking matter from a nearby galaxy. Even though nothing including light can escape from the black hole itself, the region around it has become very hot as gravity pulls and compresses matter into the black hole. The super-heated matter surrounding the black hole is actually what gives the quasar its brilliant light. Some quasars can change the amount of light they give out over the course of days, meaning the region producing all the energy must be as small as a few light-days in diameter! No large object can change its light output faster than the time it takes light to pass the change through the object. From http://www.definity-systems.net/~apw/astro/galaxies.html accessed Nov 2008
8Einstein, Albert, “Relativity, The Special and the General Theory” Translated by Robert W. Lawson, Three Rivers Press, New York, © 1961, Estate of Albert Einstein
9A superb and more scientific Christian explanation of this phenomena (and of this essay) can be found in “Starlight and Time, Solving the Puzzle of Distant Starlight in a Young Universe”, by Dr. D. Russell Humphreys, © 1994 Master Books Inc. Arizona
10Lorentz transformation equations for the Cartesian coordinate system K' (x',t') moving, with velocity v, relative to the fixed Cartesian coordinate system K (x,t) are:
x'= (x-vt)/Sqrt(1 - v2 / c2 ) and t' = (t - vx / c2 ) / Sqrt(1 - v2 / c2 ) as given in “Relativity” pg 37
11Eddie Feigner-the star of the famous barnstorming team The King and His Court-was supposedly once clocked at 104 mph, and in a two-inning exhibition in 1967, he struck out Willie Mays, Willie McCovey, Brooks Robinson, Willie Mays, Harmon Killebrew, and Roberto Clemente. From Google facts
12It needs to be pointed out here that such events are not to eliminate the miracle done in God bringing his judgment. The elimination of God's miracles by natural explanation is left to the small minds of modernists and liberals. God flinging a comet of ice to the earth to bring the judgment of the flood is an accommodation for possibilities, not a dismissal of his wrath, judgment or supernatural power.
135.25 days/year divided by 30 days/month = 7/40 months/year or 7 additional 30 day months in 40 years
15The mass of the sun is calculated for an earth orbit of 365.25 days or 31,557,600 seconds with the equation m = 4pi2 r3 /G t2 This slightly differs from AIP's value of 1.98843(+/- .00008) E030 kg because we used the currently accepted measurement of r = 1 a.u. = 149,597,870,691 +/- 30 meters.
16The radius to the moon is calculated for a lunar orbit of 27.321582 days (2,360,584.6848 sec) with the equation r3 = G t2/4 pi2 This slightly differs from the accepted value of 384,399,000 m because we used the AIP measurement of G and mass of the earth m.